Monday, November 11, 2019

Global Developmental Delay Essay

Global Developmental Delay (GDD) is the general term used to describe a condition that occurs during the developmental period of a child between birth and 18 years. It is usually defined by the child being diagnosed with having a lower intellectual functioning than what is perceived as ‘normal’. It is usually accompanied by having significant limitations in communication. It is said to affect about 1-3% of the population. Causes The most common causes of GDD are chromosomal and/or genetic abnormalities such as Down’s Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome or abnormalities with the structure or development of the brain or spinal cord such as Cerebral Palsy or Spina Bifida. Other causes can include prematurity – being born too early – or infections, such as Congenital Rubella or Meningitis. There are a number of diagnostic tests that can be done to identify the underlying cause of GDD. Sometimes these causes can be treated to cure the developmental delay, or at least to prevent it worsening. However, often the cause is never able to be fully determined. SIGNS OF GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY CAN INCLUDE: ââ€" ª The child is unable to sit on the floor without support by 8 months; ââ€" ª The child is unable to crawl by 12 months; ââ€" ª The child has poor social skills/ judgment; ââ€" ª The child is unable to roll over by 6 months; ââ€" ª The child has communication problems ââ€" ª The child has fine/ gross motor difficulties ââ€" ª The child shows aggressive behavior as a coping skill In some children GDD is suspected soon after birth because of feeding difficulties or muscle-tone. In others it is suspected later when learning or behavior difficulties occur at school. Diagnostic Examinations Once suspected, tests can confirm the presence of developmental delay. Since the causes can be numerous, the diagnostic tests aim to cover broad areas and may include: – Metabolic tests and screening – Genetic (Chromosome) testing – Hearing and vision test – Lead screening – Thyroid screening – Electroencephalography (EEG), Computed tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – Psychological assessment Psychological assessment Psychological assessment often involves an in depth interview with the parent(s) and possibly a psychological assessment of the parent(s) as well. Parents are also asked to complete structured questionnaires about their children’s functioning, including observations of playground behaviour, interaction with other children and various skills children are expected to perform at certain ages (e.g., tying shoe laces, dressing independently). Children are tested for motor skills, academic skills and language skills. Treatments There is no single treatment for GDD but there are ways to help some of the conditions that may be causing the delay. Once a pediatrician or neurologist has completed testing of the child, he/ she may advise on treatments for whatever underlying medical conditions that may exist. For example, hearing or visual impairment or therapeutic input by a Speech and Language Therapist Occupational Therapist and Physiotherapist. It is possible that no cause will be found or that the cause that is identified may be difficult, if not impossible, to treat. On the other hand, being aware of the conditions that are causing the delay can help parents, teachers and medical professionals to better counsel and guide children who are experiencing developmental problems. Theraphy Speech and Language Therapy Speech and language therapy is concerned with the management of disorders of speech, language, communication and swallowing in children and adults Augmentative Communication is an umbrella term that encompasses the communication methods used to supplement or replace speech or writing for those with impairments in the production or comprehension of spoken or written language Sign Language involve simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to fluidly express a speaker’s thoughts Sensory Integration Therapy sennsory-based therapies involve activities that are believed to organize the sensory system by providing vestibular, proprioceptive, auditory, and tactile inputs. Brushes, swings, balls, and other specially designed therapeutic or recreational equipment are used to provide these inputs Approaches Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) A type of behavior analysis based on the traditional theory of behaviorism to modify human behaviors as part of a learning or treatment process. Behavior analysts focus on the observable relationship of behavior to the environment to the exclusion of what they call â€Å"hypothetical constructs†. By functionally assessing the relationship between a targeted behavior and the environment, the methods of ABA can be used to change that behavior. DIR Method (Floortime) Dr. Stanley Greenspan, a child psychiatrist, developed a form of play therapy that uses interactions and relationships to reach children with developmental delays and autism. This method is called the Developmental, Individual-Difference,Relationship-Based model, or â€Å"DIR ®/Floortime† for short. Floortime is based on the theory that autism is caused by problems with brain processing that affect a child’s relationships and senses, among other things. With Floor Time, the child’s actions are assumed to be purposeful. It is the parent’s or caregiver’s role to follow the child’s lead and help him develop social interaction and communication skills. Miller Method The Miller Method has four basic goals: †¢ It assesses the adaptive significance of the children’s disordered behavior, †¢ It attempts to transform the disordered behavior into functional activity, †¢ It attempts to expand and guide the children from closed ways (of living alone or in immediate circle like with parents) into social and communicative exchanges, and †¢ It guides and teaches professionals and parents as regards the ways and systems to be followed to facilitate children the children affected with autism and related disorders toward reading, writing, number concepts, symbolic plays, and development of typical classroom activities. Relationship Development Intervention. The program’s core philosophy is that individuals with autism can participate in authentic emotional relationships if they are exposed to them in a gradual, systematic way. The goal of treatment is to systematically build up the motivation and tools for successfully interacting in social relationships, to correct deficits in this area that are thought to be common to all people with autism. Son-Rise Is a home-based program for children with autism spectrum disorders and other developmental disabilities, which was developed by Barry Neil Kaufman and Samahria Lyte Kaufman Parents are trained at an institute on how to be aware of their attitudes—a core principle of the therapy—for bonding and relationship building, as well as creating a low-stimulus, distraction-free playroom environment so the child can feel secure and in control of the over-stimulation. Parents and facilitators mimic a child’s exclusive and restricted â€Å"stimming† behavior, until the child shows social cues for willing engagement. Then encouragement for more complex social activities is done in a noncoercive way, while simultaneously using the â€Å"3 E’s†: Energy, excitement, enthusiasm. If the child moves away from social interaction, the facilitator gives the child their space by using parallel play in order to gain the child’s self-trust. To acquire skill acquisition, the program uses the child’s particular motivation for learning TEACCH Program provides clinical services such as diagnostic evaluations, parent training and parent support groups, social play and recreation groups, individual counseling for higher-functioning clients, and supported employment. In addition, TEACCH conducts training nationally and internationally and provides consultation for teachers, residential care providers, and other professionals from a variety of disciplines. Research activities include psychological, educational, and biomedical studies. Coping Step 1 Research all of the options to help your child mitigate the developmental delays. Visit your child’s pediatrician if you suspect developmental delays and ask for an evaluation. Contact the National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, also known as NICHCY. They offer information to all sectors of society regarding disabilities in children and youths from birth to age 22. With guidance from your child’s doctor or a developmental specialist, consider counseling, training and therapy. Sponsored Links Step 2 Create a family plan that integrates all the needed therapies into regular family activities. It is easy, especially during the early months of learning your child has a developmental delay, to feel overwhelmed and unable to focus. A family plan or schedule establishes routines that guide everyone each day. Use the plan as a family blueprint, but create enough flexibility to integrate new activities and changes in daily routines. Step 3 Establish opportunities for respite. The energy and commitment required to assist a developmentally delayed child drains energy from parents and siblings. Contact your local social services agency regarding respite services. Find a trained respite provider who will care for your developmentally delayed child for a few days or a weekend. Families need occasional breaks from the stress in order to operate at their best when their child is home. Step 4 Investigate programs for siblings that allow them to share their worries and frustrations in a safe, supportive setting. Ask extended family, friends, neighbors and your faith community for help with such things as transportation and meals. Step 5 Work with your child’s school system to create academic supports through the creation of an individualized education plan (IEP). Children with developmental delays receive academic assistance, as outlined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), a federal law. Some children may require specialized services for a few years, while others may need support throughout their school years. Step 6 Acknowledge issues of grief, loss and disappointment. Parents may require assistance reevaluating their plans and dreams for the child. Siblings may need help understanding the limitations and abilities of their developmentally delayed brother or sister. The developmentally delayed child may require support and strategies to understand their disability.

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